Improve On-Farm Conservation

Understand Your Land

One of the first steps toward improving your land is to understand the importance of soil health and the ways to improve it. After that, take inventory of your land and its resources and connect with a conservation specialist because together you'll choose the best set of uses and management practices for your land.

Learn About Soil Health

Maintaining healthy soils can reduce a farmer’s production costs and improve profits while also helping the land sequester more carbon, increase water infiltration and improve wildlife and pollinator habitat. Learn about the importance of soil health and the variety of farm practices that can help improve the soil. A few key principles of soil health include:

  • Use diverse species to increase diversity in the soil. 
  • Manage soils more by disturbing them less. 
  • Keep plants growing throughout the year to feed the soil. 
  • Keep the soil covered as much as possible. 

For more information see the resources below:

Assess Your Land's Resources 

Taking stock of your land’s agricultural use and farm infrastructure is an important step in developing meaningful conservation goals. Use a land inventory checklist to assess what is happening on your farm now and document your positive assets and any issue concerns. Maybe you’ve noticed new soil erosion areas or that a part of your farm might be suitable for wildlife habitat. Note both the positive and negative features of your land and bring the list to your meeting with a conservation specialist (see Develop Your Plan below).


Think About Goals

Once you have a better understanding of your land’s resources and concerns, then write down your vision and goals. Use the Goal Setting Worksheet below to help you collect your thoughts and begin to formulate a plan for your land. The worksheet also serves as a useful tool to start the conversation about conservation with your family, farmer tenants, and conservation agency staff.


Develop Your Plan

A conservation plan is a tool designed to help farmers and ranchers manage the natural resources on their farm. Reach out to a conservation specialist who will meet with you to discuss your goals for your land and help you create a plan to address natural resource conditions. The options you choose, which can range from practices to support pollinator and wildlife habitats to crop rotations and water control structures, and the time-line for their implementation become the plan.

Find a Conservation Specialist 

Staff at conservation agencies can help you create and implement your conservation plan.  

Federal Programs

USDA Farm Service Agency 
A good place to start is your local Farm Service Agency office. To enroll your land in any federal conservation program, you first need to find out if your land has a "farm number", or if not get a farm number through the Farm Service Agency. Visit the Farm Service Agency Directory to find an office near you.

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service 
NRCS conservationists offer direct, personal assistance including help developing and implementing conservation plans. Find a USDA Service Center near you.

State Programs

Conservation Districts 
Conservation District staff can give you maps and help you evaluate soils and develop conservation plans. Visit the Conservation District Directory to find an office near you.

Cooperative Extension 
The Cooperative Extension System can test soil samples and assist with writing an agricultural lease, and they are knowledgeable about local agriculture. Find a Cooperative Extension office near you.


Implement Your Plan

A state or federal conservation program can provide finanical and technical assistance to help bring your conservation plan into practice. 

Find Financial Assistance

Federal Programs

The USDA offers a variety of conservation programs to assist private landowners with natural resource concerns. 

Agricultural Conservation Easement Program
The Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) provides technical and financial assistance to help conserve and protect farm and ranch lands, grasslands and wetlands. Under the Wetlands Reserve Easements component, NRCS works directly with landowners to restore, protect and enhance enrolled wetlands. Enrolled land is not available for production.  Visit the ACEP program page.    

Conservation Reserve Program
The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) encourages farmers to convert highly erodible cropland and other environmentally sensitive land to vegetative cover including native grasses, trees, filter strips, habitat buffers or riparian buffers. CRP is administered by the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA). Visit the CRP program page

Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program
A variation of the CRP, the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) helps farmers protect environmentally sensitive land, decrease erosion, restore wildlife habitat and safeguard ground and surface water. This program is also administered by the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA). Visit the CREP program page.                         

Conservation Security Program
The Conservation Security Program (CSP)  provides financial and technical assistance to support conservation efforts on tribal and private agricultural land. The program helps producers maintain existing conservation practices and encourages them to implement new practices that will provide additional levels of conservation benefits. CSP is administered by the USDA NRCS. Visit the CSP program page.

Environmental Quality Incentives Program
The Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) provides financial and technical ssistance through contracts to help plan and implement structural and management practices on eligible agricultural land. Contracts address natural resource concerns and opportunities to improve soil, water, plant, animal, air and related resources. EQIP can help producers meet environmental regulations. EQIP is administered by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Visit the EQIP program page.

State Programs

Many states offer cost share funds to apply conservation practices. These programs may be administered by state departments of natural resources or state departments of agriculture through soil and water conservation districts. A good place to start is your USDA service center. Staff will be aware of applicable state programs. Find a USDA Service Center near you.

The Soil Health Institute compiled a list of state agencies and universities that offer resources or financial incentives to improve soil health. Visit the list of Soil Health Resources and look for your state.


Additional Resources

The resources here are optional but may be of interest to those who wish to do additional research on their own.

  • County and municipal offices have maps and photos, and information on local comprehensive/master plans and other community plans; zoning maps; ordinances, zoning and local policies that affect agriculture. Some information may be available online, but it is also a good idea to visit in person.
  • Google Earth provides recent and past satellite imagery of Earth.
  • The NRCS Climate Center provides information about climate patterns, water and soil moisture conditions.
  • The Web Soil Survey (WSS) provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. Soil surveys can be used for general farm, local, and wider area planning. 
  • The Plant Hardiness Zones Map in a nationwide, interactive map that enables users to find their own plant hardiness zone.