As communities confront the consequences of low-density development, a more balanced perspective emerges. People are beginning to realize that nodes of more intense development can help achieve local economic development goals, provide housing options, create walkable neighborhoods, and protect their air, water and open space. This balance helps create a sense of place – a place to walk, a place to talk to neighbors, a place to know the children are safe to walk to school.
This article evaluates the adoption, implementation, and performance of Priority Funding Areas in Maryland in order to provide planners and policymakers with insights into their efficacy as instruments for managing growth.
This publication includes hundreds of examples of proven programs that can help states encourage smarter and more environmentally sustainable patterns of development. This document is a shortcut to the policies, administrative actions, and spending decisions that can help states effectively address growth and land use issues.
The American Planning Association’s (APA) comprehensive survey of planning reform and smart growth activity in the States between 1999 and 2001 confirms that these subjects are among the top political concerns in statehouses across the nation. Activity is increasing in terms of the number of states taking up these issues, and the depth and breadth of planning-related matters under consideration. APA’s review also identifies a number of common elements that must be present if the states are to succeed in modernizing their comprehensive planning laws and implementing smart growth.
If you’ve heard the term smart growth and want to know what it actually looks like, this publication is a good starting point. If you’re already familiar with smart growth ideas, this publication can help you educate others. It contains many examples of how smart growth principles have been applied in cities, suburbs, small towns, and rural areas; some of these examples may look much like your own community.
In Best Development Practices: A Primer, good community development, as distinct from sprawl, is defined in operational terms. Public purposes loom large,though not at the expense of market considerations. Recommendations go to the enlightened edge of current development practice, but not so far beyond as to lose our target audience, the development community. The public purposes pursued though these best practices—among them, affordable housing, energy efficiency, preservation of natural areas, and sense of community—make good business sense.
Despite the widespread adoption of smart growth principles, there has been little systematic assessment of their effectiveness or consequences. To fill this need, the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy collaborated with 14 of the country’s leading public policy researchers and planners to measure performance in four states with statewide smart growth programs (Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, and Oregon) and performance in four states without such programs (Colorado, Indiana, Texas, and Virginia).
In communities across the nation, there is a growing concern that current development patterns— dominated by what some call “sprawl”—are no longer in the long-term interest of our cities, existing suburbs, small towns, rural communities, or wilderness areas. Though supportive of growth, communities are questioning the economic costs of abandoning infrastructure in the city, only to rebuild it further out. They are questioning the social costs of the mismatch between new employment locations in the suburbs and the available work-force in the city.
Smart growth policies seek to remove barriers to homeownership, adequate public facilities, and employment opportunities by providing access to valuable land resources in suburban and urban centers. As of 2006, nearly 20 states have implemented smart growth-oriented directives, and many local and regional entities have also incorporated smart growth practices into their comprehensive master plans.
This two-page handout summarizes some of the core ideas and principles of Smart Growth development.
In recent years interest has grown in Smart Growth as a mechanism for improving environmental quality. In Our Built and Natural Environments, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) summarizes technical research on the relationship between the built and natural environments, as well as current understanding of the role of development patterns, urban design, and transportation in improving environmental quality.
For the last 50 years, local, state and the federal governments have expressed concerns about farmland retention. Four benefits have been used to warrant farmland preservation programs: food security and local food supply, viable local agricultural economy, environmental and rural amenities, and sound fiscal policy and orderly development. We explore the available evidence of how well farmland preservation programs have provided these benefits.
The Greening Food Deserts Act creates a Department of Urban Agriculture, expands the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program, provides infrastructure funding for farmers' markets and provides technical assistance for backyard conservation and community garden programs. The bill also requires further evaluation of farmers' markets in the Census of Agriculture.
Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food wants to empower consumers to be able to make smart decisions when they eat. This means understanding the importance of diet and regular exercise. It also means learning more about where your food comes from and how it gets to your plate, so that you can more closely link with your community and the hard-working farmers and ranchers that produce your food.
Model zoning language establishing farmers' markets as an approved use, developed by Public Health Law & Policy (nonprofit) to help communities create more opportunities for farmers' markets and ensuring their long-term viability.
Model comprehensive plan language developed by Public Health Law & Policy (nonprofit) to help communities create more opportunities for farmers' markets and ensuring their long-term viability.
As the food and financial crises bring fresh urgency to concerns over hunger, food access, public health, labor and economic development - citizens and governments are beginning to connect these issues back to the food system as a whole. Councils are springing up across North America to “connect the dots” between the growing number of neighborhood food initiatives and communities forging policies for just, healthy food systems.
Communities large and small are fed without anyone truly understanding how the entire global food system moves. Dr. Christian Peters, a former research associate at Cornell University and currently with Tufts University, writes that this illustrates “both the power of the marketplace to meet human demands and the peril of taking its function for granted.
Amends the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act to award grants to eligible entities for farm to school programs.
This report summarizes research on the state of community and squatter gardens in Philadelphia, with a focus on the production and distribution of food. The specific aims of this project were to measure the amount of food grown in community gardens and to trace its distribution. The broader goal of this ongoing research is to understand the roles and impacts of community gardens in building food security for households and communities. It involved three sorts of research, all conducted in the summer of 2008:
Cost of community service (COCS) studies, which compare the ratio of expenditures-to-revenues for different land uses, are increasingly popular and influential in debates about municipal landuse planning. In this paper, we conduct a quantitative meta-analysis of COCS studies that focus on three land-use categories: residential, commercial/industrial, and agricultural/open-space. The dataset consists of 125 studies that take place across the United States. Using data from the studies themselves and the U.S.
In June 1979, the U.S.
As a result of heightened awareness surrounding global issues of climate change and peak oil, along with threats to our local agricultural system, demand for local food is increasing in Vancouver and surrounding Lower Mainland. In response to these growing concerns regarding Food Security, the Vancouver Food Policy Council and Local Food First conceived of a local Food Hub, and additional Local Food Precincts. The Hub would serve as a central location for local food producers and consumers to meet, with the aim of increasing local food distribution and consumption in the Lower Mainland.
This publication discusses the issues involved in locating a farmers market on federal property: security, insurance needs, parking, the use of utilities and amenities, and all the other things you need to consider. It tells who to contact for information, points to some helpful government Web sites and offices, and offers case studies of successful farmers markets on public property.
At least thirty studies have been conducted in North America over the last twenty-plus years that measure amenity values generated by farmland. A review of these studies provides evidence that estimated farmland amenity values are sensitive to increasing acreage, regional scarcity, alternative land use(s), public accessibility, productivity quality, human food plants, active farming, and intensive agriculture. Farmland amenity values are also
Local governments can promote healthy eating and active living in their communities by supporting local farmers’ markets. Local farmers’ markets provide fresh produce to community residents, support small farmers, serve as gathering places, and revitalize community centers and downtown areas. There are many ways that local governments can promote farmers markets.
Food nourishes us, enriches our celebrations, and sustains life itself. Yet not everyone in the United States has equal access to healthy food. Some of us live in neighborhoods where grocery stores carry a greater variety of potato chips than vegetables, while some of us cannot afford vegetables even when they are available. This report shows how planners can play a significant role in shaping the food environment of communities and thereby facilitate healthy eating.
Based on visits and interviews, this report profiles pilot programs that match and expand Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP),1 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Farmers Market Nutrition Program (WIC FMNP), and Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) dollars spent at farmers markets.
Planners have historically focused on air, water, shelter and food. In the 19th century, as cities expanded, light and air gained prominence in an effort to combat public health concerns and disease. In the early 20th century, the garden city movement addressed the role of food in relation to planning. This relationship was lost for decades, but now food is moving to the fore once again - regionally, nationally and globally.
To meet the challenges associated with a GHG-restricted world and shifting climate, our food and agricultural systems need to be transformed. As a sector that is especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, our agricultural systems must integrate mitigation and adaptation: not only must they adapt to more unstable weather and shifting climate patterns, but they must also result in fewer overall GHG emissions. To achieve this, our food and agricultural systems must be diverse, decentralized, resilient and synergistic.
In the past year, rising fuel and food prices coupled with increased concerns about environmental impacts and safety of our food supply have prompted a number of actions by U.S. consumers regarding their food purchases. Against this backdrop of rising prices, demand for locally grown food products continues to increase.
This statute authorizes and provides details regarding federal grants for community food projects.
The Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) awards grants to States, United States Territories, and federally-recognized Indian tribal governments to provide low-income seniors with coupons that can be exchanged for eligible foods at farmers' markets, roadside stands, and community supported agriculture programs. The majority of the grant funds must be used to support the costs of the foods that are provided under the SFMNP; State agencies may use up to 10 percent of their grants to support administrative costs for the program.
This Farmers' Market Promotion Program makes grants to eligible entities for projects to establish, expand, and promote farmers' markets
It is the purpose of this Act to promote, through appropriate means and on an economically sustainable basis, the development and expansion of direct marketing of agricultural commodities from farmers to consumers.
The Food Stamp Act serves to strengthen the agricultural economy; to help to achieve a fuller and more effective use of food abundances; to provide for improved levels of nutrition among low-income households through a cooperative Federal-State program of food assistance to be operated through normal channels of trade; and for other purposes.
The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) was created in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) by an act of Congress on April 27, 1935. However, an earlier date, September 19, 1933 should not pass without recognition. That date marks the selection of Hugh Hammond Bennett as the director of the Soil Erosion Service (SES), predecessor to SCS.1 Creation of the Soil Erosion Service was critical to the future of Federal soil conservation activities, the history of SCS, and Bennett’s recognition as the “father of soil conservation.”
The Census of Agriculture is the most comprehensive source of data portraying our nation’s agriculture over time. The census is conducted every five years by the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA NASS) and is used by government agencies, policymakers, producers, farm and ranch organizations, and state and local governments to plan for agriculture and to implement farmrelated programs and policies.
Many important agricultural counties in the United States are urbanizing; and the long-term viability of farming there is in doubt despite considerable public policy efforts to retain the financial, employment, consumer, and other benefits of local farming enterprises. Focusing on 15 metro-area counties in 14 states, the study's purpose was to identify conditions under which farming may remain viable as important agricultural counties transition to become mostly urban and suburban in land use.
In November, the Pennsylvania Legislative Budget and Finance Committee released its comprehensive evaluation of the state’s farmland protection program. Senate Resolution 2007-197 called for the assessment as the program approached its 20th anniversary and directed the committee to address nineteen issues—everything from project selection criteria to the potential use of state funds for enforcement actions.